Jakarta in 12 hours! Lonely Planet Travel Video
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Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. It also has a greater population than any other city in Southeast Asia. It was formerly known as Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1942), and Djakarta (1942–1972).
Located on the northwest coast of Java, it has an area of 661.52 square kilometres (255.41 sq mi) and a population of 8,489,910. Jakarta is the country’s economic, cultural and political center. Jakarta is the twelfth-largest city in the world; the metropolitan area, called Jabodetabek, is the sixth-largest in the world.
First established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. As Batavia, it grew greatly as the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Renamed Jakarta in 1942 during Japan’s occupation of the Java, it was made the capital city of Indonesia when the country became independent after World War II.
Major landmarks in Jakarta include Indonesia Stock Exchange, the Bank of Indonesia, and the National Monument (Tugu Monas). The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.
Jakarta is located on the northwestern coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is constituted on a plain land, approximately eight meters above the sea level. This contributes to the frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly.
There are about thirteen rivers flowing through Jakarta, mostly flowing from the hilly southern parts of the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. The city border is the province of West Java on its east side and the province of Banten on its west side. The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay north of the city.
The economy depends heavily on financial service, trading, and manufacturing. Financial service constituted 23% of Jakarta’s GDP in 1989. The manufacturing industry is well-diversified with significant electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing sectors Jakarta is the most luxurious and busiest city in Indonesia. In 2009, 13% of the population had an income per capita in excess of US$ 10,000 (Rp 108,000,000)
One of the most populous cities in the world, Jakarta is strained by transportation problems. In Indonesia most communal transport is provided by mikrolets, which are privately run minibuses.
Despite the presence of many wide roads, Jakarta suffers from congestion due to heavy traffic, especially in the central business district. To reduce traffic jams, some major roads in Jakarta have a ‘three in one’ rule during rush hours, first introduced in 1992, prohibiting fewer than three passengers per car on certain roads.
Auto rickshaws, called bajaj (pronounced badge-eye), provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city. In 1966, an estimated 160,000 rickshaws were operating in the city; as much as fifteen percent of Jakarta’s total workforce was engaged in rickshaw driving.
In 1971, rickshaws were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. An especially aggressive campaign to eliminate them finally succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.
The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service operates on seven reserved busway corridors in the city; the first, from Blok M to Jakarta Kota opened in January 2004.
An outer ring road is now being constructed and is partly operational from Cilincing-Cakung-Pasar Rebo-Pondok Pinang-Daan Mogot-Cengkareng. A toll road connects Jakarta to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in the north of Jakarta. Also connected via toll road is the port of Merak and Tangerang to the west and Bekasi, Cibitung and Karawang, Purwakarta and Bandung to the east.
Landmarks and Tourist Attractions
In addition to several museums, such as the National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta has some other landmarks like its National Monument, the Presidential Palace, Gambir Station, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Bung Karno Stadium, and the DPR/MPR Building.
Some tourist sites include the Ragunan Zoo in South Jakarta, Blok M, Jakarta Old Town, and Glodok (Indonesia’s version of Chinatown. There are also many shopping malls in Jakarta, including Plaza Senayan, Plaza Indonesia, Grand Indonesia, Pondok Indah Mall, Mal Taman Anggrek, and Ratu Plaza.
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