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Malacca – Historical City,Malaysia

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Malacca – Historical City,Malaysia

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Malacca (Malay: Melaka, dubbed The Historical State or Negeri Bersejarah amongst locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang.

It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south.

The capital is Malacca Town. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.

Although one of the oldest Malay sultanates, the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a Sultan, acts as the head of state.

Geography

The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,650-km2, or 0.5 percent of the whole area of Malaysia. The state is divided into 3 districts: Central Melaka (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²).

Malacca sits upon the southwestern coast of Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east.

Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the West coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca.

The state capital Malacca Town is strategically located between the two national capitals (of Malaysia and Singapore, respectively) and connected with excellent roads and highways.

Malacca still harbors no train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilan is easily accessible. However, a domestic airport terminal rests in Batu Berendam.

The offshore Pulau Besar, Pulau Upeh and Tanjung Tuan are also parts of Malacca.

Economy

The tourism and manufacturing sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, “Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia” (“Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia“).

It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest.

Malacca is home to several modern shopping complexes to attract more visitors to the state.

Examples include Mahkota Parade Shopping Centre at Plaza Mahkota (City Centre), Dataran Pahlawan Melaka Megamall (which is situated on the historical field of Padang Pahlawan, where Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al Haj announced the independence day of the Federation Of Malaya), Melaka Mall Shopping Complex (formerly known as Kotamas Shopping Complexe), A’Famosa Safari and Theme Park and Plaza Melaka Raya at the Taman Melaka Raya.

Malacca also has its very own hypermarket and departmental store.

A few examples include Parkson Departmental Store (Mahkota Parade and Melaka Mall), Jusco Supermarket and Departmental Store (Ayer Keroh and coming soon near Melaka Sentral), Tesco Hypermarket and Giant Hypermarket at Bachang Utama; also a Supermarket at (Mahkota Parade).

Apart from tourism, Malacca is also a manufacturing centre for products ranging from food and consumer products, through high-tech weaponry and automotive components to electronic and computer parts.

There are at least 23 industrial estates that houses some 500 factories from the United States, Germany, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore.

Transport

Pulau Sebang at Alor Gajah district, a town 30 km north of Malacca town, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but were dismantled by the Japanese during the war for the construction of the infamous Burmese Death Railway.

It was never rebuilt after the war though traces of the line remain.

Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Sentral which has air-conditioned waiting areas and separate areas for buses plying the town routes and for buses plying the intertown routes with regular bus services to Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru, and other places in Malaysia.

Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy. It is now refurbished into a brand new international airport for the state of Melaka.

The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits.

State government

Breakdown of State Seats Representatives elected 2008

Malacca is administered by its State Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO).

The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power.

It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.

The Chief Minister’s Department is the administrative pillar of the State Government, and is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest.

The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister’s office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:

  • Malacca Central District & Land Office
  • Alor Gajah District & Land Office
  • Jasin District & Land Office

These offices render various services and facilities to the people in their daily lives.

Culture

The historic centre of Malacca was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 7 July 2008 together with George Town, the capital of Penang.

The Malays who are the original settlers of Malacca since 1400, form the largest community. The Malaccan Malays are rich in culture from their daily life to the building arts. The famous Malacca Steps or Tangga Melaka are common in front of many Malay houses in Malacca.

Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum and the Melaka Sultanate Palace Museum.

Malacca is well-known for its food. Most notable of all is the traditional Malay dishes like ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.

Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh tiny shrimp of a species known as keragu in Malay.

These are mashed into a paste and dried in little mashed lumps, pounded and formed into large balls, dried again for a week or so, wrapped in plastic and stored for future use. It is in this form that most of these blachan balls are sold.

Belacan is used as an ingredient in many dishes, or eaten on its own with rice. A common preparation is sambal belacan, made by mixing belacan with chili peppers, minced garlic, shallot paste and sugar and then fried.

The aroma from the frying mixture can be unpalatable to Westerners who have not become accustomed to it, but is an absolute delight to the Asian connoisseur.

Malacca is also famous for satay celup. Raw fish and meat are skewered onto sticks which is then cooked in a peanut sauce. The satay celup is often self-service where you pay for individual sticks.

There is also Nyonya-Baba cuisine which is a mixture of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature.

Interesting dishes of the Peranakan include Itik Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce which is usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa.

Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.

Breakdown of State Seats Representatives elected 2008

St. Paul’s Hill (A’Famosa)

The Portuguese colonised Melaka from 1511 to 1641. The first thing they did was build a fort overlooking the river, calling it A’Famosa.

As Melaka was the centre of struggles between super powers of the time, and suffered the constant threat of attack, the A’Famosa fort was critical in Portugal maintaining its colonial foothold in the Far East.

Within the fort walls were housing and food stores, a castle, a meeting room for the Portuguese Council and five churches.

A seven-month attack by the Dutch just about destroyed the entire fortress, leaving only the entrance façade and the structure of a church at the top of the hill.

Go for a stroll up St. Paul’s Hill on a cool late afternoon and wander among the majestic trees and historical remnants. Here, you can almost imagine the glories and miseries of the besieged lives the Portuguese would have led right here all those years ago…

Christ Church, Malacca

Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture.

The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of “The Last Supper”.

St. John’s Fort

Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inwards towards the mainland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.

Taming Sari Tower

Witness a host of interesting and historical sights of Melaka from a height of 80 metres of Menara Taming Sari.

Rest assured with the beauty of the vast scenic Melaka straits and the fast development of Melaka, your visit will be an unforgettable and memorable one.

Menara Taming Sari which located at Jalan Merdeka, Banda Hilir, Melaka was opened on 18 April 2008. The 110 metre viewing tower was designed based on the legendary Taming Sari Keris.

It will be the 1st tower in the country to have a fully revolving structure. The air-conditioned viewing cabin will be able to accommodate 66 people at one time.

Taman Mini Malaysia & Mini ASEAN

The Taman Mini Malaysia cultural park is located a few kilometres outside of Melaka, near the town of Ayer Keroh.

If you have an interest in traditional architecture and ways of life, this is a great place to go exploring. Each of the homes represents the architectural style of the 13 states in Malaysia and is furnished with various items, arts and crafts which depict the culture of each state.

Inside each house, you can find a range of genuine handicrafts originating from each state or county. The life-like figures ‘inhabiting’ each charming home on stilts are garbed in their respective traditional costumes.

Other attractions in the park include weekly cultural shows and traditional games. Basically, this is an opportunity to see all Malaysian architecture and heritage in a short all-encompassing outing. And it’s a nice break from the hustle and bustle of nearby urban Melaka.

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Cameron Highlands – Malaysia

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Cameron Highlands – Malaysia

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Cameron Highlands is a highland region located about 121 km east of Ipoh and about 214 km north of Kuala Lumpur, in Pahang, Malaysia.

At 5,000 ft (1,500 m) above sea level it is the highest area on the mainland, enjoys a cool climate, with temperatures no higher than 25 °C and rarely falls below 12°C year-round.

Cameron Highlands is actually a district in the state of Pahang Darul Makmur although the road entrance is via Tapah and Simpang Pulai in the state of Perak Darul Ridzuan.

Cameron Highlands district is bordered by Lipis district on the south-east, Kelantan on the north and Perak on the west.

The size of the whole Cameron Highlands district is roughly two and a quarter times the size of Singapore.

Background

The Highlands were named after William Cameron, a British colonial government surveyor who discovered the plateau during a mapping expedition in 1885.

The fame of Cameron Highlands then grew during the colonial era when British planters realised the potential of its fertile mountain slopes for growing tea, then a prized commodity.

Cameron Highlands is still home to many tea plantations, being Malaysia’s largest tea-producing region.

With its many farms the area is also known as a major supplier of legumes and vegetables to both Malaysia and Singapore, and is one of Malaysia’s prime tourist destinations.

Visitors can here from Tapah, Perak.Jalan from Simpang Pulai, Ipoh can also get to Cameron Highlands. Village of King, we can go to Gua Musang in Kelantan. From Tapah, you will find Lata Iskandar waterfall.

Overall the Cameron Highlands is a highland of the most attractive in Malaysia. The beauty of the Blue Valley Tea Estate, Mount Brinchang, Tringkap and Orang Asli settlements River Ruil quite spectacular.

Farm green and beautiful here cultivated by Boh Sungai Palas Tea Plantation.

Other attraction is the Wild Orchid Farm, Green Farm, Rose Valley Village, Butterfly Farm, Butterfly Garden, Kea Farm, Vegetable Market, Uncle Sam Farm, Cactus Point, Sam Poh, Cactus Valley, Strawberry Farm, rest houses and golf courses .

Peak located at Police Station Fire Station Cameron Highlands and Cameron Highlands. here also lies the Mount Beremban, Jasar Mount, Mount Perdah and Robinson Waterfall.

Other locations are Ringlet and Kampung Valley Prapat electric power stations functioning as Cameron Highlands  electricity.

Privileges

In addition to a resort, Cameron Highland is also famous for its production of crops such as tea, fruits, vegetables, flowers and fruits of high quality and there is rarely found elsewhere.

This is because the weather is cold and fresh is suitable for only certain crops such as tea, flowers like Carnation and a strawberry. Conditioning moderate climate plants can also be planted in the area.

Here also there is a settlement of the first Malay in Cameron Highland, Kampung Taman Sedia is a village located in the valley between Tanah Rata and Brinchang offer accommodation packages ‘Homestay’ for visitors.

If your visit to Cameron Highland, Malaysia do not miss the opportunity to purchase farm products plant because the price is not only affordable but still fresh as just quoted directly from the farm.

If you like driving a car, do not miss the opportunity to drive at Jalan Gunung Brincang because the road is the highest road in Malaysia.

Tourist Attraction

Sam Poh in Brinchang

Flower garden: Cactus Point

Resort

Hotel

Heritage Hotel

Heritage Hotel Cameron Highlands has a number of the world’s largest tropical forest, waterfalls spektakuler and tea estates.

The Heritage Hotel Cameron Highlands is a Tudor style boutique hotel is located 1500 meters high above the hill in Tanah Rata. Ideal location for those seeking an alternative to a city or beach holidays.

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Singapore

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Singapore

Singapore officially the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, lying 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of Indonesia’s Riau Islands. At 710.2 km2 (274.2 sq mi), Singapore is a microstate and the smallest nation in Southeast Asia. This is substantially larger than Monaco and Vatican City, the only other surviving sovereign city-states.

Before European settlement, the island now known as Singapore was the site of a Malay fishing village at the mouth of the Singapore River. Several hundred indigenous Orang Laut people also lived along the nearby coast, rivers and on smaller islands. In 1819, the British East India Company, led by Sir Stamford Raffles, established a trading post on the island, which was used as a port along the spice route.[8] Singapore became one of the most important commercial and military centres of the British Empire, and the hub of British power in Southeast Asia.

During the Second World War, the British colony was occupied by the Japanese after the Battle of Singapore, which Winston Churchill called “Britain’s greatest defeat”. Singapore reverted to British rule in 1945, immediately after the war.

Eighteen years later, in 1963, the city, having achieved independence from Britain, merged with Malaya, Sabah, and Sarawak to form Malaysia. However, the merger proved unsuccessful, and, less than two years later, it seceded from the federation and became an independent republic within the Commonwealth of Nations on August 9, 1965. Singapore was admitted to the United Nations on September 21 of that year.

Since independence, Singapore’s standard of living has risen dramatically. Foreign direct investment and a state-led drive to industrialization based on plans drawn up by the Dutch economist Albert Winsemius have created a modern economy focused on industry, education and urban planning. Singapore is the 5th wealthiest country in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita.

In December 2008, the foreign exchange reserves of this small island nation stood at around US$174.2billion. The Singapore government, with approval from the President, announced in March 2009 that it would tap into their official reserves for the first time ever and withdraw some S$4.9 billion. The funds were then used as part of the S$20.5 billion resilience package unveiled by Finance Minister Tharman Shanmugaratnam on 5 February 2009. As of January 2009, Singapore’s official reserves stands at US$170.3 billion.

In 2009, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Singapore the tenth most expensive city in the world in which to live—the third in Asia, after Tokyo and Osaka. The 2009 Cost of Living survey, by consultancy firm Mercer, has ranked Singapore similarly as the tenth most expensive city for expatriates to live in.

The population of Singapore including non-residents is approximately 4.86 million. Singapore is highly cosmopolitan and diverse with Chinese people forming an ethnic majority with large populations of Malay, Indian and other people. English, Malay, Tamil, and Chinese are the official languages.

Singapore is a parliamentary republic, and the Constitution of Singapore establishes representative democracy as the nation’s political system.[17] The People’s Action Party (PAP) dominates the political process and has won control of Parliament in every election since self-government in 1959.

Etymology

The English language name Singapore comes from Malay Singapura, “Lion-city”, but it is possible that one element of its name had a more distant original source. Pura comes from Sanskrit puram, “city, fortress”, and is related to Greek polis, “citadel, city”. Singa- comes from Sanskrit siṃha, which means lion. Today the city-state is referred to as the Lion City.

Recent studies of Singapore indicate that lions probably never lived there, not even Asiatic lions; the beast seen by Sang Nila Utama, the founder of Singapore who gave it the name meaning “Lion City”, was most likely a tiger, probably the Malayan Tiger. Alternatively, it could simply be a reference to the ancient Sinhapura as described in the Mahabharata.

Tourism

Singapore is a popular travel destination, making tourism one of its largest industries. About 7.8 million tourists visited Singapore in 2006. The total visitor arrivals reached around 10.2 million in 2007. The Orchard Road shopping district is one of Singapore’s most well-known and popular tourist draws.

To attract more tourists, the government decided to legalise gambling and to allow two casino resorts (euphemistically called Integrated Resorts) to be developed at Marina South and Sentosa in 2005. To compete with regional rivals like Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo and Shanghai, the government has announced that the city area would be transformed into a more exciting place by lighting up the civic and commercial buildings. Cuisine has also been heavily promoted as an attraction for tourists, with the Singapore Food Festival in July organised annually to celebrate Singapore’s cuisine.

Singapore is fast positioning itself as a medical tourism hub — about 200,000 foreigners seek medical care in the country each year and Singapore medical services aim to serve one million foreign patients annually by 2012 and generate USD 3 billion in revenue. The government expects that the initiative could create an estimated 13,000 new jobs within the health industries.

Singapore now is a true melting pot of Chinese, Malay, Indian and Arabic communities. Tourists will see women with Chinese features wear sarongs and Arabic dress, and this cultural aspects contribute to making Singapore one of the unique destinations to visit.

Under the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA), Wireless@SG is a government initiative to build Singapore’s infocomm infrastructure. Working through IDA’s Call-for-Collaboration, SingTel, iCell and QMax deploy a municipal wireless network throughout Singapore. Since late 2006, users have enjoyed free wireless access through Wi-Fi under the “basic-tier” package offered by all three operators for 3 years.

There are approximately 30,000 registered hotel rooms available in Singapore, and average occupancy is around 85%.

Population

According to government statistics, the population of Singapore as of 2008 was 4.84 million, of whom 3.64 million were Singaporean citizens and permanent residents (termed “Singapore Residents”). There were 3.1644 million citizens in 2008. Various Chinese linguistic groups formed 75.2% of Singapore’s residents, Malays 13.6%, Indians 8.8%, while Eurasians, Arabs and other groups formed 2.4%.

In 2006 the crude birth rate stood at 10.1 per 1000, a very low level attributed to birth control policies, and the crude death rate was also one of the lowest in the world at 4.3 per 1000. The total population growth was 4.4% with Singapore residents growth at 1.8%. The higher percentage growth rate is largely from net immigration, but also increasing life expectancy.

Singapore is the second-most densely populated independent country in the world after Monaco. In 1957, Singapore’s population was approximately 1.45 million, and there was a relatively high birth rate.

Aware of the country’s extremely limited natural resources and small territory, the government introduced birth control policies in the late 1960s. In the late 1990s, the population was aging, with fewer people entering the labour market and a shortage of skilled workers. In a dramatic reversal of policy, the Singapore government introduced a “baby bonus” scheme in 2001 (enhanced in August 2004) that encouraged couples to have more children.

In 2006, the total fertility rate was only 1.26 children per woman, the 3rd lowest in the world and well below the 2.10 needed to replace the population. In 2006, 38,317 babies were born, compared to around 37,600 in 2005. This number, however, is not sufficient to maintain the population’s growth. To overcome this problem, the government is encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore. These large numbers of immigrants have kept Singapore’s population from declining.

Religion

Singapore is a multi-religious country. According to Statistics Singapore, around 51% of resident Singaporeans (excluding significant numbers of visitors and migrant workers) practice Buddhism and Taoism.

About 15%, mostly Chinese, Eurasians, and Indians, practice Christianity – a broad classification including Catholicism, Protestantism and other denominations. Muslims constitute 14%, of whom Malays account for the majority with a substantial number of Indian Muslims and Chinese Muslims. Smaller minorities practice Sikhism, Hinduism and others, according to the 2000 census.

Some religious materials and practices are banned in Singapore. The Jehovah’s Witnesses, for example, are prohibited from distributing religious materials and are sometimes jailed for their conscientious refusals to serve in the Singaporean military. About 15% of the population declared no religious affiliation.

Transport

International

Singapore is a major Asian transportation hub, positioned on many sea and air trade routes. The Port of Singapore, managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port, was the world’s second busiest port in 2005 in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 1.15 billion gross tons, and in terms of containerised traffic, at 23.2 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs).

It was also the world’s second busiest in terms of cargo tonnage, coming behind Shanghai with 423 million tons handled. In addition, the Port is the world’s busiest for transshipment traffic and the world’s biggest ship refuelling centre.

Singapore is an aviation hub for the Southeast Asian region and a stopover on the Kangaroo route between Australasia and Europe. Singapore Changi Airport has a network of 81 airlines connecting Singapore to 185 cities in 58 countries. It has been rated as one of the best international airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world’s best airport for the first time in 2006 by Skytrax.

The airport currently has three passenger terminals. There is also a budget terminal, which serves budget carrier Tiger Airways and Cebu Pacific. The national carrier is Singapore Airlines (SIA). The government is moving towards privatising Changi airport.

Singapore is linked to Johor, Malaysia via the Johor-Singapore Causeway and the Tuas Second Link, as well as a railway operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu of Malaysia, with its southern terminus at Tanjong Pagar railway station. Frequent ferry service to several nearby Indonesian ports also exists.

Domestic

The domestic transport infrastructure has a well-connected island-wide road transport system which includes a network of expressways. The public road system is served by the nation’s bus service and a number of licensed taxi-operating companies. The public bus transport has been the subject of criticism by Singaporeans, the majority of whom are dependent on it for their daily commuting.

Since 1987, the heavy rail passenger Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) metro system has been in operation. The MRT has been further augmented by the Light Rail Transit (LRT) light rail system, and increases accessibility to housing estates. Established in 2001, the EZ-Link system allows contactless smartcards to serve as stored value tickets for use in the public transport systems in Singapore.

More than 2.85 million people use the bus network daily operated mainly by SBS Transit and SMRT Buses, the two main public bus operators, while more than 1.5 million people use either the LRT or MRT as part of their daily routine. Approximately 945,000 people use the taxi services daily. Private vehicle use in the Central Area is discouraged by tolls implemented during hours of heavy road traffic, through an Electronic Road Pricing system. Private vehicle ownership is discouraged by high vehicle taxes and imposing quotas on vehicle purchase.

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